Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist and
the founder of psychoanalysis, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious
motives control much behavior. He became interested in hypnotism and how it
could be used to help the mentally ill. He later abandoned hypnotism in favor
of free association and dream analysis in developing what is now known as "the
talking cure." These became the core elements of psychoanalysis. Freud
was especially interested in what was then called hysteria, and is now called
Freud, his theories, and his treatment of his patients were controversial in
19th century Vienna, and remain hotly debated today. Freud's ideas are often
discussed and analyzed as works of literature and general culture in addition
to continuing debate around them as scientific and medical treatises.
He was born Sigismund Schlomo Freud in Freiberg, Moravia, the Austrian Empire
(now Pribor in the Czech Republic). In 1877, he abbreviated his name from Sigismund
Schlomo Freud to Sigmund Freud.
Little is known of Freud's early life as he twice destroyed his personal papers,
once in 1885 and again in 1907. Additionally, his later papers were closely
guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives and only available to Ernest Jones, his
official biographer, and a few other members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis.
The work of Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson shed some light on the nature of the suppressed
Freud's daughter Anna Freud was also a distinguished psychologist, particularly
in the fields of child and developmental psychology. Sigmund is the grandfather
of painter Lucian Freud and comedian and writer Clement Freud, and the great-grandfather
of journalist Emma Freud, fashion designer Bella Freud and PR man Matthew Freud.
Freud has been influential in two related, but distinct ways. He simultaneously
developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, and a clinical technique
for helping unhappy (i.e. neurotic) people. Many people claim to have been influenced
by one but not the other.
Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud has made to modern thought
is his conception of the unconscious. During the 19th century the dominant trend
in Western thought was positivism, the claim that people could accumulate real
knowledge about themselves and their world, and exercise rational control over
both. Freud, however, suggested that these claims were in fact delusions; that
we are not entirely aware of what we even think, and often act for reasons that
have nothing to do with our conscious thoughts. The concept of the unconscious
was groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and
there were thoughts occurring "below the surface." Dreams, called
the "royal road to the unconscious" provided the best examples of
our unconscious life, and in The Interpretation of Dreams Freud both developed
the argument that the unconscious exists, and developed a method for gaining
access to it.
The Preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious
thought—that which we could access with a little effort. (The term "subconscious"
while popularly used, is not actually part of psychoanalytical terminology.)
Although there are still many adherents to a purely positivist and rationalist
view, most people, including many who reject other elements of Freud's work,
accept the claim that part of the mind is unconscious, and that people often
act for reasons of which they are not conscious.
Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is "repression." According
to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful
that people cannot bear them. Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could
not, Freud argued, be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness.
Thus they come to constitute the unconscious. Although Freud later attempted
to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general
model of the mind, he also observed that individual patients repress different
things. Moreover, Freud observed that the process of repression is itself a
non-conscious act (in other words, it did not occur through people willing away
certain thoughts or feelings). Freud supposed that what people repressed was
in part determined by their unconscious. In other words, the unconscious was
for Freud both a cause and effect of repression.
Freud sought to explain how the unconscious operates by proposing that it has
a particular structure. He proposed that the unconscious was divided into three
parts: Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id (Latin, = "it" = es in the original
German) represented primary process thinking — our most primitive need gratification
type thoughts. The Superego represented our conscience and counteracted the
Id with moral and ethical thoughts. The Ego stands in between both to balance
our primitive needs and our moral/ethical beliefs. A healthy ego provides the
ability to adapt to reality and interact with the outside world in a way that
accommodates both Id and Superego. The general claim that the mind is not a
monolithic or homogeneous thing continues to have an enormous influence on people
outside of psychology. Many, however, have questioned or rejected the specific
claim that the mind is divided into these three components.
Freud was especially concerned with the dynamic relationship between these
three parts of the mind. Freud argued that the dynamic is driven by innate drives.
But he also argued that the dynamic changes in the context of changing social
relationships. Some have criticized Freud for giving too much importance to
one or the other of these factors; similarly, many of Freud's followers have
focused on one or the other.
Freud developed the concept of overdetermination to account for the multiple
determining causes in the interpretation of dreams rather than rely on a simple
model of one-to-one correspondence between causes and effects.
Freud believed that humans were driven by two instinctive drives, libidinal
energy/Eros and the death instinct/thanatos. Freud's description of Eros/Libido
included all creative, life-producing instincts. The Death Instinct represented
an instinctive drive to return to a state of calm, or non-existence and was
based on his studies of protozoa. (See: Beyond the Pleasure Principle). Many
have challenged the scientific basis for this claim.
Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its
object. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse,"
meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. He further
argued that as humans developed they fixated on different, and specific, objects—first
oral (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then anal (exemplified
by a toddler's pleasure in controlling his or her bowels), then phallic. Freud
argued that children then passed through a stage where they fixated on the parent
of the opposite sex. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the
dynamics of the mind. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity,
characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay need gratification. (see
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.)
Freud's model of psycho-sexual development has been criticized from different
perspectives. Some have attacked Freud's claim that infants are sexual beings
(and, implicitly, Freud's expanded notion of sexuality). Others have accepted
Freud's expanded notion of sexuality, but have argued that this pattern of development
is not universal, nor necessary for the development of a healthy adult. Instead,
they have emphasized the social and environmental sources of patterns of development.
Moreover, they call attention to social dynamics Freud de-emphasized or ignored
(such as class relations).
Freud hoped to prove that his model, based primarily on observations of middle-class
Viennese, was universally valid. He thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary
ethnography for comparative material. Freud used the Greek tragedy by Sophocles
Oedipus Rex to point out how much we (specifically, young boys) desire incest,
and must repress that desire. The Oedipus conflict was described as a state
of psychosexual development and awareness. He also turned to anthropological
studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment
of an tribal Oedipal conflict (see Totemism and Taboo). Although many scholars
today are intrigued by Freud's attempts to re-analyze cultural material, most
have rejected his specific interpretations as forced.
Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his
therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was
to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings, in order to allow
the patient to develop a stronger ego. Classically, the bringing of unconscious
thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging the patient
to talk in "free-association" and to talk about dreams. Another important
element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part
of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts
and feelings onto the analyst. Through this process, called "transference,"
the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood
conflicts with (or about) parents.
A lesser known interest of Freud's was neurology. He was an early researcher
on the topic of cerebral palsy, then known as "cerebral paralysis".
He published several medical papers on the topic. He also showed that the disease
existed far before other researchers in his day began to notice and study it.
He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral
palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during the birth process being a cause.
Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom of the
problem. It was not until the 1980s when his speculations were confirmed by
more modern research.
Freudian theory and practice have been challenged by empirical findings over
the years. Some people continue to train in, and practice, traditional Freudian
psychoanalysis, but most psychiatrists today reject the large majority of Freud's
work as unsupported by evidence and best used for inspiration or historical
study, if at all. Although Freud developed his method for the treatment of neuroses,
some people today seek out psychoanalysis not as a cure for an illness, but
as part of a process of self-discovery.
Freudian Psychoanalysis, Psychology, and Psychiatry
Freud trained as a medical doctor, and consistently claimed that his research
methods and conclusions were scientific. Nevertheless, his research and practice
were condemned by many of his peers. Moreover, both critics and followers of
Freud have observed that his basic claim, that many of our conscious thoughts
and actions are motivated by unconscious fears and desires, implicitly challenges
universal and objective claims about the world (proponents of science conclude
that this invalidates Freudian theory; proponents of Freud conclude that this
invalidates science). Psychoanalysis today maintains the same ambivalent relationship
with medicine and academia that Freud experienced during his life.
Clinical psychologists, who seek to treat mental illness, relate to Freudian
psychoanalysis in different ways. Some clinical psychologists have modified
this approach and have developed a variety of "psychodynamic" models
and therapies. Other clinical psychologists reject Freud's model of the mind,
but have adapted elements of his therapeutic method, especially his reliance
on patients' talking as a form of therapy. Experimental psychologists generally
reject Freud's methods and theories. Like Freud, Psychiatrists train as medical
doctors, but—like most medical doctors in Freud's time—most reject his theory
of the mind, and generally rely more on drugs than talk in their treatments.
Freud's psychological theories are hotly disputed today and many leading academic
and research psychiatrists regard him as a charlatan. Although Freud was long
regarded as a genius, psychiatry and psychology have long since been recast
as scientific disciplines, and psychiatric disorders are generally considered
diseases of the brain whose etiology is principally genetic. Freud's lessening
influence in psychiatry is thus largely due to the repudiation of his theories
and the adoption of many of the basic scientific principles of Freud's principal
opponent in the field of psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin. In his book "The Freudian
Fraud", research psychiatrist E. Fuller-Torrey provides an account of the
political and social forces which combined to raise Freud to the status of a
divinity to those who needed a theoretical foundation for their political and
social views. Many of the diseases which used to be treated with Freudian and
related forms of therapy (such as schizophrenia) have been unequivocally demonstrated
to be impervious to such treatments.
Freud's notion that the child's relationship to the parent is responsible for
everything from psychiatric diseases to criminal behavior has also been thoroughly
discredited and the influence of such theories is today regarded as a relic
of a permissive age in which "blame-the-parent" was the accepted dogma.
For many decades genetic and biological causes of psychiatric disorders were
dismissed without scientific investigation in favor of environmental (parental
and social) influences. Today even the most extreme Freudian environmentalists
would not deny the great influence of genetic and biological factors. The American
Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (the
latest edition of which is the DSM-IV), the official standard for diagnosing
psychological disorders in the USA, reflects the universal adoption of the neo-Kraepelinian
scientific-biological approach to psychiatric disorders, with its emphasis on
diagnostic precision and the search for biological and genetic etiologies—largely
ignored during the earlier Freud-dominated decades of the twentieth century.
Criticism of Freud
A paper by Lydiard H. Horton, read in 1915 at a joint meeting of the American
Psychological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences, called Freud's
dream theory "dangerously inaccurate" and noted that "rank confabulations...appear
to hold water, psychoanalytically".
Anthony Grayling, Reader in Philosophy at the University of London, and a Fellow
of St Anne's College, Oxford, writing in The Guardian in 2002, said "Philosophies
that capture the imagination never wholly fade....But as to Freud's claims upon
truth, the judgment of time seems to be running against him."
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