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Memory Psychology

Theories of Memory, how we remember, forgetting and how to improve your memory:

Theories of Memory, how we remember, forgetting and how to improve your memory:



Memory and Chewing Gum Memory And Chewing Gum

Chew for Memory?

Thursday 17th January, 2008 Research conducted at the University of Northumbria in Newcastle, England has linked our ability to remember chunks of information to chewing gum. 75 participants in the study were asked to take part in a 20-minute memory test in which: One third of participants chewed gum One third carried out the motions of...

Conditioning Introduction Conditioning Introduction

Conditioned Behavior

Conditioning in behavioral psychology is a theory that the reaction ("response") to an object or event ("stimulus") by a person or animal can be modified by 'learning', or conditioning. The most well-known form of this is Classical Conditioning (see below), and Skinner built on it to produce Operant...

Flashbulb Memory Flashbulb Memory

"It Happened in a Flash"

Flashbulb memories explained. Includes characteristics of flashbulb memories, factors that affect them and an evaluation of Brown and Kulik's research into flashbulb memories.

Forgetting Forgetting

Why Do We Forget?

Many people think that the human mind is too complex to explain, and memory is no exception. Even though vast amounts of research have been carried out into how we remember (and forget!) things, nobody knows for sure the model on which human memory is based. There are, nonetheless, two main reasons for which psychologists think we 'forget'...

Miller's Magic Number Miller's Magic Number

Magic Number Seven

In 1956, Harvard University-based psychologist George A Miller published a paper in journal Psychology Review that would give a fascinating insight into human memory and have implications far beyond the field of psychological research and impact on our everyday lives in way many people don't realize. Miller was troubled for several years by the...

Memory Test Memory Test

Memory Like A Goldfish?

There are several techniques that you can use to improve your memory. Try the following exercise to see how well you normally remember things, then move onto the next section to learn one of the skills of retention. We will give you a list of twelve words to read through once, then click back and see how...

False Memories False Memories

False Memories

You may take it for granted that the person whose memory you can trust the most is your own. Yet, psychologists have found that our recollection of everyday events may not be as dependable as we would believe. Moreover, even once information has been committed to memory, it can be altered. Our recollection of memories can be manipulated and even entire...

The Zeigarnik Effect Explained The Zeigarnik Effect Explained

Interrupt to Remember?

Your own experience of revising for exams might tell you that sessions of uninterrupted concentration can help you to better remember key pieces of information. Indeed, many students will engage in periods of “cramming” - intensive revision just before a test - in the belief that essential subject facts and figures will be memorized ready for...

Drawing Information May Increase Your Ability to Memorize It Drawing Information May Increase Your Ability To Memorize It

Draw to Remember

Do you experience trouble remembering birthdays, important events and other key details? Have you already forgotten what you ate for breakfast this morning? If so, practising drawing what you want to remember could help you to retain key information, according to a new study into how the mind processes new memories. In a study published in the Quarterly...

10 Influential Memory Theories and Studies in Psychology 10 Influential Memory Theories And Studies In Psychology

Influential Memory Studies

How do our memories store information? Why is it that we can recall a memory at will from decades ago, and what purpose does forgetting information serve? Memory has been the subject of investigation among many 20th Century psychologists and remains an active area of study for today’s cognitive scientists. Below we take a look at some of the most...

Schemas and Memory Schemas And Memory

How Schemas Influence Memories

Schemas (or schemata) refer to a type of cognitive heuristic which facilitates our understanding of our environment. They are mental concepts which are used to recognize and develop an understanding of otherwise complex objects and ideas, from recognizing people, animals and objects in our immediate environment, to processing other types of information,...

Cognitive Load Theory Cognitive Load Theory

Cognitive Load Theory and Memory

Cognitive Load Theory (or CLT) is a theory which aims to understand how the cognitive load produced by learning tasks can impede students’ ability to process new information and to create long-term memories. Cognitive load is typically increased when unnecessary demands are imposed on a learner, making the task of processing information overly...

Memory Test Results Memory Test Results

Memory Test Results

Summary of results from the short-term memory test.

Memory and Association Memory And Association

Memory and Association

Has someone you know approached you in the street, and, try as you might, you just could not remember this person's name? Put Names and Faces together and don't forget names again with this associative memory technique.

Craik & Lockhart (1972) Levels of Processing Theory Craik & Lockhart (1972) Levels Of Processing Theory

Craik & Lockhart (1972) Levels of Processing Theory

Traditional theories of memory segmented human memory into different stores – for example, the multi-store model with sensory, short-term and long-term stores. Craik & Lockhart's Levels of Processing theory opposes this, suggesting that our ability to recall information is dependent not upon which store it is in, but to what extent we have...

Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels Of Processing

Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing

Craik & Tulving wanted to test whether the level of processing affected how well we remember information. By "depth of processing", we mean, the way in which a person thinks about a piece of information, for example, a shallow level of processing of a word would be to skim over a sentence and to understand the sentence without dwelling on...

What affects Classical Conditioning? What Affects Classical Conditioning?

What affects Classical Conditioning?

Issues affecting classical conditioning.

Memory and Food Memory And Food

Memory and Food

How food and exercise can affect your ability to remember and recall memories.

Hypnosis Hypnosis

Hypnosis

How hypnosis can help improve our memory.

Luria Method Luria Method

Luria Method

Use this storytelling method for remembering lists of information using an imaginary journey.

Using Mnemonics to Improve Your Memory Using Mnemonics To Improve Your Memory

Using Mnemonics to Improve Your Memory

Remember better using the sounds of words.

Pegword Mnemonic Memory Method Pegword Mnemonic Memory Method

Pegword Mnemonic Memory Method

Using the pegword mnemonic method to remember phone numbers and other numeric sequences.

Multi-Store Memory Model Multi-Store Memory Model

Multi-Store Memory Model

One popular theory of how we remember was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968. It proposed that the human memory is divided into 3 main sections:   Information from our environment, such as visual images from the eyes and sound, smell, etc. enter the memory here. The information that enters here may only...

Retentive Method for Memory Improvement Retentive Method For Memory Improvement

Retentive Method for Memory Improvement

Read through the following, allowing yourself to form mental pictures as you go along. When you come to the end, turn away from the computer and write down the list of words in the correct order. You'll be surprised at how well you do. I'm going to form a short story around the words that you're going to remember, and as you form the images...

Working Memory Model Working Memory Model

Working Memory Model

A theory on how our memory 'works' to remember things in different ways.

How Quickly do our Short-Term Memories Decay? How Quickly Do Our Short-Term Memories Decay?

How Quickly do our Short-Term Memories Decay?

Peterson and Peterson investigated one of the factors that causes our short-term memory to decay, i.e. why we forget information in our short-term memory. In 1959, they conducted an experiment that revealed how time between remembering something and having to recall it affected the life of a memory.   Peterson and Peterson showed...

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