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'Big Five' Personality Traits Affect Transportation Effects - Study

A study reveals how the Big Five personality dimensions influence audiences' narrative transportability.

10 Causes of Stress (and How to Avoid Them)

What events cause the most stress and how can we avoid them?

10 Influential Memory Theories and Studies in Psychology

Discover the experiments and theories that shaped our understanding of how we develop and recall memories.

31 Psychological Defense Mechanisms Explained

A look at common defense mechanisms we employ to protect the ego.

A Case of Claustrophobia

How W.H.R. Rivers helped a sufferer of claustrophobia in the trenches during World War I.

A Guide To Overcoming Phobias: Overcoming Your Fear

Learn to overcome your fears and phobias.

A Guide To Overcoming Phobias: The Symptoms

Identifying your phobias in order to overcome them.

About Us

Information about our web site.

Accident Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams of accidents.

Agoraphobia

How agoraphobia affects sufferers' ability to function in open spaces.

Agreeableness

What is agreeableness and is it desirable as a personality trait?

Alien Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing aliens.

Altruism in Animals and Humans

Why do we help other people? When Darwin introduced his theory of natural selection - often referred to as 'survival of the fittest' - he revolutionized and crystallized thought and theory in regards to how traits evolve in species.

Altruism More Likely in Affluent Areas - Study

A 'dropped letter' experiment reveals that the affluence of a neighborhood can affect whether or not residents engage in an altruistic acts.

Angel Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing angels.

Anger Test

This test will see how you react in stressful situations.

Anger Test Results

Summary of results from the anger test.

Animal Communication

How do animals communicate with each other? A look at the Lana project, Washoe, a comparison with human communication and evaluation of research.

Animals in Dreams

Analysis of dreams of animals.

Anna O: Sigmund Freud's Case History

The life and case study of Anna O: how Sigmund Freud was influenced by one woman's experiences.

Anti-Psychiatry

A look at the anti-psychiatry movement.

Anxiety Drug Treatments

Overcoming anxiety with anti-depression medications.

Anxiety Emotion

A look at the experience of anxiety and its origins.

Approaches in Psychology

Explanation of approaches in psychology, including behaviorism, cognitive and psychodynamic approaches, and biological approaches.

Are You An Extravert? Test

How extraverted are you? Find out with this online test.

Are You Neurotic? Test

Find out if you're neurotic with our free test.

AS Psychology Revision

Psychology revision for AS Level students.

Asch: Social Influence, Conforming in Groups

The Asch conformity experiments were a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity in groups.

Aspects of our Self Image

The two aspects of self image explored, including an exercise in self image.

Attachment Theory

Introduction to attachment theory in developmental psychology, including Bowlby and Ainsworth's contributions, evaluation and criticisms of attachment theory.

Authoritarian Personality

How Theodor Adorno's F-scale aimed to identify fascism and authoritarian personality.

Authority

Adorno's F-Scale revisited.

Aversion Therapy

Aversion therapy uses the principle that new behavior can be 'learnt' in order to overcome addictions, obsessions or, as demonstrated in Kubrick's film, A Clockwork Orange, violent behavior.

Babies/Pregnancy Dream Meanings

Meaning of pregnancy in dreams.

Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment

Albert Bandura's influential Bobo doll experiments reveal how children imitate TV violence and the behavior of others.

Basics of Body Language

Learn the essentials of body language reading.

Before We Learn To Speak

How body language is an innate form of communication.

Behavioral Approach

The behavioral approach explained: Introduction to the branches of behaviorism in psychology, assumptions of the approach and an evaluation.

Behavioral Psychology

Articles on behaviorism in psychology, including an overview of the behavioral approach branches of behaviorism, theories and treatments using behavioral psychology.

Being Caught In A Tornado

Analysis of dreams of tornados.

Being Chased Dreams

Analysis of dreams of being chased.

Being Naked Dream Meaning

Analysis of dreams in being naked.

Biological Approach

Overview of the Biological Approach in psychology, including differentiation from other approaches and evaluation.

Biological Psychology

Biological psychology articles, research evaluations and outlines.

Body Language

Body language reading guide and articles on the improving your own body signals.

Body Language and How to Read It

Master the science of body language reading with this exclusive online course.

Body Language Course

Master the art of reading body language with this exclusive online course.

Body Language of Animals

What can we learn about body language from animals?

Body Language of Flirting

A further look at the body language of flirting.

Body Language: Appearance

What your posture and position body language say about you.

Body Language: Further Reading

Useful resources for further research into body language.

Body Language: Posture and Position

How posture and positioning contribute towards better body language.

Body Language: Reading the Hidden Message

Understand what someone is thinking or how they are feeling using body language.

Brain Distinguishes 'Faked' Laughter From Authentic - Study

False laughter activates different brain regions to natural emotional response, according to fMRI study.

Brain Explorer

Discover what each part of your brain does and how it functions with the new interactive Brain Explorer.

Brainwashing

Brainwashing, its origins and its use in cults and media.

Carl Jung on Dreams

Psychologist Carl Jung's ideas about dreams' meanings.

Carl Jung: Archetypes and Analytical Psychology

Exploring the realm of Carl Jung's collective unconscious and the archetypes that live within it.

Case Studies of Sigmund Freud

Introduction to Sigmund Freud's case histories, including Little Hans, Anna O and Wolf Man.

Causes of Schizophrenia

How urban situations and our genes can expose us to schizophrenia.

Cheating Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing cheating.

Children Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing children.

Classical Behaviorism

Overview and in-depth review of classical behaviorism in psychology.

Cognitive Approach

Introduction to the cognitive approach in psychology. Explanation and evaluation of this approach.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

How Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can be used as a treatment. Article includes an introduction to CBT, exposure therapy, the Negative Triad as well as the successes and criticisms of the treatment.

Cognitive Load Theory

How the cognitive load of a learning task affects a person's ability to memorize it.

Cognitive Psychology

Overview of cognitive psychology. Includes theories, studies and tests, along with evaluations of research in the cognitive field.

Color Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing colors.

Compliance Strategies: Common Persuasion Techniques

What are compliance techniques and how are they used to persuade us to agree to requests?

Conditioning

What is conditioning? What Pavlov's dogs experiment teaches us about how we learn.

Conscientiousness Test

How conscientious are you? Test yourself.

Conscientiousness: A 'Big Five' Personality Trait

What is conscientiousness and how does this 'Big Five' personality trait affect people's behavior?

Contact Information

Contact the Psychologist World support team.

Contact Us

Contact details: by email, telephone and post.

Controlling What Your Body Says

Discover what your body language says about you to other people, and how to control it.

Copyright

Copyright acknowledgements.

Craik & Lockhart (1972) Levels of Processing Theory

Traditional theories of memory segmented human memory into different stores.

Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing

Craik & Tulving wanted to test whether the level of processing affected how well we remember information. Read an explanation and evaluation of this research.

Criteria for OCD

Checklist of symptoms for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

Cultural Differences in Psychology

How cultural differences can affect our perception and behavior.

Daily Hassles and Uplifts

How minor hassles and uplifts throughout the day can contribute to stress levels.

Dark Sense of Humor Linked to High Intelligence - Study

People who appreciate taboo jokes and other forms of black humor show higher levels of intelligence, according to a recent study.

Dead People Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing dead people.

Death Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing death.

Defense Mechanisms Quiz

Test your knowledge of defense mechanisms in psychology with this revision quiz.

Defense Mechanisms: Psychological Techniques We Use to Cope With Anxieties

An exploration of the psychological defense mechanisms we use to cope with anxious situations.

Depression Drugs

Depression Psychotherapy

How can depression be treated with psychotherapy?

Depth of Processing

How does the depth of processing affect how well we remember information?

Developmental Psychology

Index of articles on developmental psychology.

Developmental Psychology

Overview of developmental psychology, including related theories and an evaluation.

Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

Symptoms of schizophrenia, plus the various categorizations of the disorder.

Did We Always Dream?

How far back can we trace dreaming in humans' history?

Disturbing Dreams

An analysis of disturbing dreams.

Do Animals Experience Emotions?

A look at how animals experience emotions and the differences between human and non-human emotions.

Do Emoticons Help Us To Better Communicate Emotions?

How emoticons influence emotional communication via instant messaging and emails.

Do smart phones affect sleep?

How light from gadgets' screens affects our sleep-wake cycles.

Dopamine Neurotransmitter

The role of neurotransmitter dopamine in movement and cognition.

Dora Case Study

A look at the background and dreams of Sigmund Freud's well-known patient, Dora.

Drawing Information May Increase Your Ability to Memorize It

Research suggests that drawing information can lead to it being memorized more effectively than writing it.

Dream Interpretation Conclusion

Conclusion of the dream interpretation guide.

Dream Meanings

Find out what your dreams mean with the Dreams Dictionary.

Dream Symbols

Common symbols that occur in dreams and nightmares, and their meanings.

Dreams and Sleep

All about dreams. Dreams articles and more.

Dreams Dictionary: Meanings of Dreams

Find out what your dreams mean. Psychologist World's dream dictionary has over a thousand entries on kinds of dream.

Driving Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing driving.

Ecological Validity

An explanation of ecological validity in psychological.

ECT

Introduction to Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT), how it is used today and an evaluation.

Edgar Cayce on Dreams

Writer Edgar Cayce's ideas on dreams.

Effective Communication

Achieving effective communication through rapport, personal space and view management.

Election Day Temperatures Influence Voting Choices - Study

Temperature affects decision making and influences voters' preferred candidate on election day, according to new research.

Emotion Guide

Why do people and animals experience emotions, and what makes us experience different types of emotions. Ian Heath looks at emotional states, the link between the sub-conscious and our feelings.

Emotion: Feelings

How do we define emotions?

Emotion: Unconscious Ideas

The unconscious and emotions.

Emotional Attraction

What causes emotional attraction? Are physical attributes the primary factors that determine attraction or is similarity more important?

Emotions

A guide to emotions.

Emotions and Memory

How do your emotions affect your ability to remember information and recall past memories?

Environmental Psychology

What is Environmental Psychology? Find out with this introduction of the approach, overviews of behavior settings, attention restoration theory and defensible space theory.

Envy Emotion

What is the experience of envy and how does it differ from jealousy?

Erikson's Stages of Human Development

Erik Erikson's theory of the stages of human development.

Evaluation of Freud

Advantages and criticism of Freudian theory.

Evaluation of the Biological Approach

Can the Biological Approach explain our behavior? Decide for yourself with the advantages and drawbacks of this approach.

Evolutionary Approach in Psychology

How Darwin's theory of evolution helped us to understand the inherited nature of our cognitive abilities.

Ex-Partner Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing ex-partners.

Exercise Helps Overcome Grudges and Encourages Forgiveness - Study

Aerobic exercise increases the ability to overcome grudges and to forgive others, the findings of a recent study suggest.

External Validity

An explanation of external validity in psychological experiments.

Extraversion and Introversion

A look at extraversion as a personality trait. What determines whether a person is extraverted or introverted?

Extreme Phobias: Collyer Brothers

Extreme phobias: an extreme case of fear meeting fate.

Eye Contact in Line-Up Study Leads to Misidentification

People's ability to identify a face may be influenced by subjects' eye gaze direction, according to a new study.

Eye Reading (Body Language)

What someone's eyes can tell you about what they are thinking.

Eysenck's PEN Model of Personality

A look at Hans Eysenck's theory of three dimensions of personality.

Face Reading: Chin

Chin reading as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Face Reading: Nose

Nose reading, as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Face Shapes - Historical Pseudo-science

Face shape interpretation, as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Facial Attractiveness Draws Longer Attention - Study

Facial attractiveness affects visual gaze, according to a new study.

Falling Dreams

Analysis of dreams of falling.

False Memories

How false memories are created and can affect our ability to recall events.

Famous Left Handers

Information on famous left handed people.

Fashion Psychology: What clothes say about you

The psychology driving our clothing choices and how fashion affects your dating prospects.

Fight or Flight Response Revision Quiz

Test your knowledge of the fight-or-flight response with this revision quiz.

Fire Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing fire.

Five Factor Test

Measure 5 aspects of your personality with this online test: openness to experience, concienciousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.

Five-Factor Model of Personality

How the 'super traits' of the Five Factor Model explain differences in personality and the way people behave.

Flashbulb Memory

Flashbulb memories explained. Includes characteristics of flashbulb memories, factors that affect them and an evaluation of Brown and Kulik's research into flashbulb memories.

Flirting and Body Language

The body language of flirting.

Flooding

If you jumped out of a plane, would you overcome your fear of heights?

Flooding for Phobias

How flooding is used as a treatment for phobias.

Flying Dreams Meaning

Analysis of dreams of flying.

Foot-in-the-Door as a Persuasive Technique

How the 'foot-in-the-door' technique is used as a compliance strategy.

Forensic Psychology

Overview of the use of forensic psychology in criminal cases.

Forgetting

Why do we forget information? Find out in this fascinating article exploring the purpose of forgetting.

Free Association

The technique used by Freud in his treatment of clients.

Free Will vs Determinism

Exploration of the free will vs determinism debate, including a look at compatibilism.

Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a leading thinker in psychology. Psychologist World takes a look at his theories and explanations of personality development.

Freudian Personality Type Test

What's your personality type? Find out with this test.

General Adaptation Syndrome

How your body copes with stressful situations and adapts to survive them.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

How Generalized Anxiety Disorder can take over the life of a sufferer.

Guarantee

Details of the Psychologist World membership guarantee.

Guilt Emotion

An exploration of the emotion of guilt and its relationship to self pity.

Handedness

What makes us left handed? Evolution from war, brain hemispheres or something else.

Handshakes

What the handshakes of leaders can teach us, and perfecting your handshake.

Hate Emotion

What is emotional hatred, why do people experience it and where does it come from?

Headaches

Types of headaches and treatments explained, including exploration of Ice Cream and Rebound headaches.

Historical Pseudo-science: Face reading

Historical pseudo-science of face reading explained.

Historical Schizophrenia

House Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing a house.

How Agreeable Are You?

How agreeable are you? Take the online test.

How Drugs Affect Us: Cells

How do drugs that affect our mood (for example, Prozac for depression) and the way we behave work?

How Love Happens: The Three Components of Relationships

Find out what makes a successful relationship.

How Quickly do our Short-Term Memories Decay?

Study by Peterson & Peterson (1959) of how quickly we forget memories.

How to be a Better Communicator

How to communicate better using body language and by reading it.

How to Beat Stress and Succeed in Exams

If you're one of the many people who gets stressed out when it comes to taking exams then we have a few tips for you that will help you to overcome this and really concentrating on achieving good grades.

How to Interpret Your Dreams

How to interpret dreams, remember dreams you experience better and uncover the psychoanalytic meaning behind the themes of dreams.

How to Make A Good First Impression

By paying attention to your body language, make your people's first impression of you a positive one.

How to Make Small-Talk Using The FORM Technique

Struggle to find topics to talk about with friends? Find it difficult to keep conversations alive? Try the easy-to-remember FORM technique.

How to Remember Your Dreams

Techniques you can use to keep dreams vivid when you awake, and remember them long enough to undertake and analysis of them.

How to Say, 'I'm Interested'

Using body language to let people know you're interested in what they're saying.

How You Talk Without Speaking

How our body language tells a person as much about us as what we say.

How Your Speech Reveals Your Political Leanings

A study reveals people's sentence construction often reflects their political ideology.

Humanistic Approach

Overview of the humanistic approach in psychology. Includes related studies and evaluations of the approach.

Hypnosis and Memory

How hypnosis can help improve our memory.

Imprinting and Relationships

How first impressions from birth influence our relationship choices later in life.

Influence of Language

How the words we use and media language affect our thinking.

Ingratiation as a Persuasive Strategy

How ingratiation techniques such as self-presentation and likability are used to persuade people.

Inside the Mind of Daniel Schreber

A look at Sigmund Freud's interpretation of Daniel Schreber's fantasies detailed in Memoirs of My Nervous Illness.

Intelligence Theory

A look at theories of human intelligence, and how we can categorize difference types of intelligence.

Interpreting Your Dreams

A look at how to interpret your dreams and nightmares.

Introduction to Body Language

What body language is and why understanding it is an important tool in communicating better.

Introduction to Body Language

Why body language matters in the real world.

Introduction to Depression

Introduction to Dream Interpretation

An introduction to interpreting your dreams.

Introduction to Freud

Who was Freud and why was he so influential?

Is He/She Interested in You?

Learn to read body language signals and better understand people's interest.

Issues

Issues

Jealousy Emotion

What happens when we feel jealous of someone else? A look at jealousy as an emotion in various situations.

Jungian Archetype Test

Discover which Jungian Archetype your personality matches with this archetype test.

Karoshi

What happens when stress gets the better of us?

Keeping People Interested: Body Language

Using body language to keep people engaged in what you have to say.

Key Figures in Psychology: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

A look at the life of Ivan Pavlov, his contributions to behavioral psychology and his discovery of classical conditioning.

Language Acquisition

How do we learn languages? A look at theories of language acquisition with criticisms of these theories.

Language Conservatism Test

Can this test predict your political leanings from your grammar?

Leading Questions: How Interviewers Influence Eyewitness Testimonies

How leading and loaded questions influence the answers people give.

Lemon Juice Introversion Test

What does your response to lemon juice say about how extraverted you are? Find out using this test!

Links

Psychologist World links.

Lobotomy

Can removing parts of the brain via a lobotomy cure mental illnesses? Read an evaluation of this controversial treatment.

Love and Emotion: How Love Happens

A look at the types of love in relationships between partners, parents and family members, and how gender can affect the like or love we feel for best friends and partners.

Love Emotion

An exploration of the emotion of love from a psychological perspective.

Love/Lust Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing love or lust.

Luria Method

Use this storytelling method for remembering lists of information using an imaginary journey.

Lying: Body Language Course

What body language signals can suggest that a person is not telling the truth?

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

What motivates humans? Maslow's hierarchy pyramid explains.

Maximizer vs Satisficer Quiz

Discover your approach to decision-making with the maximizer vs satisficer quiz.

Maximizers vs Satisficers: Who Makes Better Decisions?

Do maximizers or satisficers take the best approach to decision making, and which personality type is happiest with their decisions?

Meaning of Color

Psychological associations of different colors.

Memory and Association

Has someone you know approached you in the street, and, try as you might, you just could not remember this person's name? Put names and faces together and don't forget names again with this associative memory technique.

Memory and Chewing Gum

How research at two universities found memory recall can be improved by chewing gum.

Memory and Food

How food and exercise can affect your ability to remember and recall memories.

Memory Psychology

Memory Test

Test your short-term memory with this online feature.

Memory Test Results

Summary of results from the short-term memory test.

Methodological Behaviorism

What is methodological behaviorism in psychology, and how does it differ from other types of behaviorism?

Miller's Magic Number

Miller (1956): How many pieces of information can you remember? Miller's Magic Number, most likely.

Minority Influence

Minority influence enables individuals to change the opinions of others. We look at how it changes opinions and the factors that affect minority influence.

Model of Emotions

More information on emotions.

More on Altruism

Why do vampire bats show kindness to each other, and is it a selfless act?

Most Common Dream Images

Analysis of popular scenarios people experience in dreams.

Multi-Store Memory Model

How does our memory function? Find out the stages of remembering.

Narcissism Emotion

A look at narcissism, a preoccupation with oneself: what happens when we experience it?

Narcolepsy

narcolepsy

Narrative Transportation: How Movies and Novels Influence Audiences' Beliefs

How fictional characters and events in TV shows, films and novels influence our attitudes and behavior.

Neo-Freudian Psychologists

Proponents of neo-Freudian theory.

Neuroticism: A 'Big Five' Personality Factor

What is neuroticism and how does it affect a person's personality?

Nightmares

What does it mean to experience nightmares, and how can they be analyzed?

Non-Verbal Communication

What our non-verbal signals tell people about us.

Norm of Reciprocity and Persuasion

The norm of reciprocity leads us to reward helpful behavior. But how is this social norm is used to influence our actions and purchasing decisions?

Observational Psychology

Introduction to observational psychology with an overview of Bandura's social learning theory, modern issues in observational psychology and an evaluation of the approach.

OCD Case History

Openness to Experience Personality Trait

The openness to experience personality trait measures our receptivity to new ideas and experiences.

Openness to Experience Test

Are you a daredevil or a hermit? Find out with this online test.

Operant Conditioning

A look at operant conditioning as a process of learning, and how Skinner's box experiments demonstrated the effect of reinforcements on behavior.

Overcoming Phobias - Self Help Guide

Overcome your phobia with this self-help guide by hypnotherapist Faith Waude.

Pavlov's Dogs and Classical Conditioning

How Pavlov's experiments with dogs demonstrated that our behavior can be changed using conditioning.

Pegword Mnemonic Memory Method

Using the pegword mnemonic method to remember phone numbers and other numeric sequences.

People Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams of people.

Personality & Psychology Tests

Test your personality and psychological make-up, including anger and stress levels and personality type.

Personality and Influence

Area on human personality, how it affects our health, influencing people, and personality tests.

Personality Psychology

Area on human personality, personality traits and a selection of personality tests.

Personality Traits Predict Users' Facebook Status Updates - Study

Traits such as extraversion and self-esteem affect status topics and post popularity on the social network, according a recent study.

Personality Type Test

Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud theorised that our personality development is based on childhood events and labelled personality types such as analy retentive and oral. Discover your Freudian personality type with this test.

Personality Types (Friedman & Rosenman)

Personality types according to Freidman and Rosenman.

Phobias

Common fears and phobias and their names.

Polyphasic Sleep Patterns

A look at polyphasic sleep patterns - naps throughout the day - and their impact on performance.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Pride Emotion

Why do we experience pride and what happens when we do?

Privacy Statement

Problem Solving

What techniques do we use to solve problems? A look at brainstorming, experimentation, introspection and simulation, with evaluations of each method.

Psychodynamic Approach

How Freud's theories of the human psyche seek to explain the influence of our subconscious.

Psychologist World Membership

Join Psychologist World for access to over 2,200 pages.

Psychologists

Psychology Articles Index

Full psychology articles and topics index covered on Psychologist World.

Psychology Forums

Psychologist World forums, for discussion of psychological questions.

Psychology Forums

Psychologist World forums, for discussion of psychological questions.

Psychology Glossary

Definitions of 100+ terms in the field of psychology.

Psychology of Choice

How psychology explains the everyday decisions that we make, and how we are unaware of the influences that guide the choices we make.

Psychology of Happiness

The psychology behind happiness - how positive affect is quantified and what influences happiness.

Psychology of Influence

Learn about the psychology of influence.

Psychology or 'Cold' Reading Explained

What is cold reading and what's the psychology behind it?

Psychology Reading Test

Take the psychology reading test and see what cold reading could say about you.

Psychology Studies and Experiments

Evaluations, summaries and guides to a vast range of psychology studies and experiments. Ideal for psychology students and tutors.

Psychology Test Results

Results of online psychology tests.

Psychology Theories, Articles, Personality Tests and More at Psychologist World

Psychology resource for all, including psychology theory explanations, practical guides to psychology and online personality tests.

Psychosexual Theory

Freud's reputation for sexually-oriented theories on our behavior was confounded by his theory of psychosexual development.

Psychotherapy for Anxiety

Radical Behaviorism

Overview of radical behaviorism, including behaviorism and determinism, conditioning, applications of radical behaviorism and criticisms of the approach.

Rat Man: A Case of 'Obsessional Neurosis'

Case study of Sigmund Freud's client Rat Man (Ernst Lanzer), whose obsessive thoughts helped Freud to develop his theories.

Rational Emotive Therapy

Overview to Rational Emotive Therapy as a treatment in psychology. Includes explanations of different developments in the RET field and an evaluation of the treatment.

Reading Eyes - Historical Pseudo-science

Face reading: eyes, as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Reading Foreheads - Historical Pseudo-Science

Forehead reading, as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Reading Mouthes - Historical Pseudo-science

Mouth reading, as explained by historical pseudo-science.

Reductionism in Psychology

Introduction to reductionism as a technique in psychological research.

Refunds & Returns Policy

Refund policy for Psychologist World members.

Reset Password

Reset your account password.

Retentive Method for Memory Improvement

How to create a story to remember things using the retentive method.

Riding Waves: How Biological Rhythms Rule Your Life

How biological rhythms govern our bodies and what happens when they are disrupted.

Schemas and Memory

How schemas influence what we pay attention to and the memories we recall.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Issues

A look at issues surrounding this disorder.

School Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing school.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

A look at Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).

Self Image Body Language

Introduction to our Self Image.

Self Image Formation

How is our image of ourselves created?

Self Pity Emotion

The emotion of self pity explored.

Serotonin

Seratonin's role in anxiety and depression.

Sex Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams of sex.

Sigmund Freud

Who was Sigmund Freud and how did his theories become so influential in psychology?

Sigmund Freud on Dreams

What did psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud believe dreams could tell us about our personality?

Sigmund Freud Revision Quiz

Test your knowledge of Sigmund Freud and Freudian psychology with this revision quiz.

Sign In

Sign into your Psychologist World account.

Site Stuff

Information on Psychologist World.

Sleep and Dreaming

Articles on the psychology of sleep.

Sleep Deprivation

What happens when someone is deprived of sleep?

Sleeping Disorders

Common disorders associated with sleep.

Snake Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing snakes.

Social Influence

What causes us to obey to authority figures such as police, teachers and politicians and why do people conform to social norms?

Social Influence

Why do people to conform in groups? A look at how social influence affects opinions and behavior.

Social Phobias

Overview of social phobias and a case study.

Sociocultural Approach

Introduction to the sociocultural approach and an exploration of how our culture influences the way in which we learn and think.

Sources of Stress: Life Events

How the life changes caused by experiencing major events can affect stress levels.

Specific Phobias

How specific phobias affect people's ability to live a normal life.

Stages of Language Acquisition

What stages do we go through to learn our language?

Stages of Sleep

A look at the stages of sleep we experience at night.

Stimulus-Response Theory

How the Stimulus-Response Theory explains our behavior in psychology.

Stress

Stress psychology articles and self-assessment tests.

Stress Management

How stress management works.

Stress Test

Take the stress test and measure your stress levels.

Stress: Fight or Flight Response

How the Fight-or-Flight response explains stress.

Study Reveals Differences in Personality Traits Across Great Britain

Study finds significant differences in personality traits in regions across England, Scotland and Wales.

Study: Blinking Could Be Key to Magic Tricks

A study reveals that split-second periods of blinking coincide with key moments of deception during magic tricks.

Study: Unhappy Music Creates 'Pleasant' Emotions

Listening to sad music can create 'pleasant' emotions, according to a recent study.

Subliminal Advertising

How subliminal advertising has been used to influence the public, including examples.

Superstition

How Skinner's pigeon experiment revealed signs of superstition in pigeons.

Synesthesia

A look at synesthesia, a condition which causes sufferers to experience a crossover between senses.

Synesthesia (Continued)

More about synesthesia.

Taking an Exam or Test in a Dream

Analysis of dreams of taking an exam.

Teeth Falling Out in Dreams

Analysis of dreams in which your teeth fall out.

Teleological Behaviorism

Introduction to teleological behaviorism, a branch of the behavioral approach in psychology, with an overview, studies and evaluation of the approach.

Telling the Truth from Body Language

How to tell if someone is telling the truth from body language 'tells'.

The Case of Little Hans

How Freud used a boy's horse phobia to support his theories.

The Door-in-the-Face Technique as a Compliance Strategy

How the door-in-the-face technique is used to persuade people to comply with requests.

The Low-Ball Technique

How the low-ball technique is used in sales scenarios to persuade customers to purchase products, and in other situations as a compliance-gaining strategy.

The Name-Letter Effect: Why People Prefer Partners with Similar Names

Exploration of the name-letter effect - people's attraction to potential partners with similar names to them.

The Neo-Freudians

What movement arose from Freud's original theories?

The Perfect Handshake

A handshake contributes to people's first impression of you. Find out how to get it right.

The Perfect Smile

How the perfect smile can improve your communication.

The Psychology of Color

Exploring cultural associations between colors and emotions.

The Subliminal Influence of Ambient Music on Shoppers

How background music in stores and supermarkets influences consumers' purchasing decisions.

The Zeigarnik Effect Explained

Explanation of the Zeigarnik effect, whereby interruption of a task can lead to it being remembered in more detail.

Theories of Learning

Theories in psychology of how we acquire knowledge and skills.

Theories of Personality

How different theories explain the development of personality and individual differences.

Train Dream Meanings

Analysis of dreams containing trains.

Treatments

Trusting our Choices

Can too many choices be bad for us, and how much can we trust our own decisions?

Truth Drugs

Types of Dream

What categories do many of our dreams fall into?

Unconscious Ideas and Emotions

The link between the unconscious and emotion.

Understanding Kinesis

The importance of kinesis in body language.

Using Mnemonics to Improve Your Memory

Remember better using the sounds of words.

Vanity Emotion

What are the different types of vanity?

Video Game Exposure Reinforces 'Stereotypes' - Study

Researchers find link between video game use and gender stereotypes in new study.

Walking With Style

Improving your walk for more confident body language.

Watching What They Say: Body Language

How to read someone using body language.

What Causes Depression?

What Factors Affect Classical Conditioning?

A look at the factors that can affect classical conditioning.

What Factors Influence Attraction?

Factors affecting attraction, and the Halo Effect.

What is Depression?

What is OCD?

What is Stress?

What happens to make us stressed? Find out what a popular theory on stress explains how it aids our survival, and what a folklore story says about the topic.

Why Do We Dream?

We only remember as few as 5% of our dreams, but do they have a role beyond surreal experiences during the night?

Why Do We Dream?

What purpose does dreaming serve?

Why Remember Your Dreams?

Why might you want to remember a dream?

Wolf Man

A history of Wolf Man, a client of the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.

Working Memory Model

A theory on how our memory 'works' to remember things in different ways.

World Happiness Levels Mapped By Country In New Study

Countries with the happiest residents revealed in the 2017 World Happiness Report.

Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment

Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment revealed how social roles can influence our behavior. We look at how it was conducted and what we can learn from it.

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Are You Angry?

This test will see how you react in stressful situations.

Anger Test

Are You Stressed?

Take the stress test and measure your stress levels.

Memory Like A Goldfish?

Test your short-term memory with this online feature.

Slave To Your Role?

Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment revealed how social roles can influence...

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